Three aspects - archaeological, historical, biblical In the long-standing debate regarding the proper mode and meaning of baptism, F.M. Buhler's archaeological research, historical perspective and biblical exegesis are helpful to consider. Buhler outlines the innovations and changes in the meaning of baptism that began already in the first and second centuries. This led many to the conviction that baptism accomplished what it symbolized while, on the other hand, on the doctrinal plane others substituted the sacrament for the symbol. Buhler's explanation of many baptism-related terms and methods of interpretation is insightful.